Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G32770.1
Common NameANAC012, F6N18.15, NAC012, NST3, SND1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family NAC
Protein Properties Length: 358aa    MW: 41520.4 Da    PI: 5.5812
Description NAC domain containing protein 12
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G32770.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          NAM   1 lppGfrFhPtdeelvveyLkkkvegkkleleevikevdiykvePwdLpk..kvka.eekewyfFskrdkkyatgkrknratksgyWkatgkdkevlsk 95 
                  +ppGfrFhPt+eel+++yL+kkv+++k++l +vi+evd++k+ePwd+++  ++ +  +++wyfFs++dkky+tg+r+nrat +g+Wkatg+dk ++s 
                  69****************************.9***************963433332456**********************************9999. PP

          NAM  96 kgelvglkktLvfykgrapkgektdWvmheyrl 128
                    + +gl+ktLvfykgrap+g+k+dW+mheyrl
                  9999***************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF1019411.01E-5512177IPR003441NAC domain
PROSITE profilePS5100555.08416177IPR003441NAC domain
PfamPF023656.6E-2717144IPR003441NAC domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0007275Biological Processmulticellular organism development
GO:0009809Biological Processlignin biosynthetic process
GO:0009834Biological Processplant-type secondary cell wall biogenesis
GO:0010047Biological Processfruit dehiscence
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0005848anatomysecondary xylem
PO:0006202anatomyinterfascicular region
PO:0006307anatomyroot procambium
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 358 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
3ulx_A7e-481617915170Stress-induced transcription factor NAC1
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G32770-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Stems and roots, specifically in interfascicular fibers (sclerenchyma), cells differentiating into vascular vessels (cambium), and xylem. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15923329, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17114348, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17237351, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17565617}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes SND1, a NAC Domain transcription factor involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers. Expressed specifically in interfascicular fibers and xylary fibers in stems. Expressed in the procambium of stem inflorescences and root. May act as a negative regulator of secondary wall thickening in xylary fibers. Acts redundantly with NST1 to control development of secondary walls in siliques.
UniProtTranscriptional activator of genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary walls. Together with NST1, required for the secondary cell wall thickening and lignification of sclerenchymatous fibers and secondary xylem vessels (tracheary elements). Seems to repress the secondary cell wall thickening of xylary fibers. May also regulate the secondary cell wall lignification of other tissues. Binds to and activates the promoter of MYB46. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17114348, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17237351, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17333250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17565617, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17890373}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. These results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers.
    [PMID: 17114348]
  2. NST1 and NST3 redundantly regulate the secondary wall thickenings in interfascicular fiber of inflorescence stems and secondary xylem of hypocotyls in Arabidopsis without affecting the formation of cells destined to be woody tissues.
    [PMID: 17237351]
  3. First line evidence demonstrating that SND1 and NST1 function redundantly in the regulation of secondary wall synthesis in fibers is presented.
    [PMID: 17333250]
  4. ANAC012 may act as a negative regulator of secondary wall thickening in xylary fibers.
    [PMID: 17565617]
  5. These results demonstrate that MYB46 is a direct target of SND1 and is another key player in the transcriptional network involved in the regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 17890373]
  6. NST1 and NST3 regulate the formation of secondary walls in siliques which regulates pod shattering.
    [PMID: 18657234]
  7. SND1 directly activates MYB83.
    [PMID: 19808805]
  8. SND1 upregulated genes that catalyze lignin biosynthesis.
    [PMID: 20952636]
  9. NST3 induced uniform non-striated deposition while VND7 induced striated deposition of secondary walls of the fiber cells, indicating the role of nature of transcriptional factors in secondary wall depositions.
    [PMID: 21284754]
  10. These results demonstrate that NST2 together with SND1 and NST1 regulate secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers of stems.
    [PMID: 25751728]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G16490(A), AT1G17950(A), AT1G28470(A), AT1G62990(A), AT1G66230(A), AT1G73410(A), AT1G79180(A), AT4G12350(A), AT4G22680(A), AT4G28500(A), AT4G33450(A), AT5G12870(A), AT5G16600(A), AT5G56110(A)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G32770
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankEF1018920.0EF101892.1 Arabidopsis thaliana SND1 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_174554.10.0NAC Domain transcription factor SND1
SwissprotQ9LPI70.0NAC12_ARATH; NAC domain-containing protein 12
TrEMBLD7KIC60.0D7KIC6_ARALL; Putative uncharacterized protein
STRINGAT1G32770.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1715800
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Ooka H, et al.
    Comprehensive analysis of NAC family genes in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana.
    DNA Res., 2003. 10(6): p. 239-47
  3. Zhao C,Craig JC,Petzold HE,Dickerman AW,Beers EP
    The xylem and phloem transcriptomes from secondary tissues of the Arabidopsis root-hypocotyl.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 138(2): p. 803-18
  4. Zhong R,Demura T,Ye ZH
    SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(11): p. 3158-70
  5. Mitsuda N, et al.
    NAC transcription factors, NST1 and NST3, are key regulators of the formation of secondary walls in woody tissues of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(1): p. 270-80
  6. Zhong R,Richardson EA,Ye ZH
    Two NAC domain transcription factors, SND1 and NST1, function redundantly in regulation of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis.
    Planta, 2007. 225(6): p. 1603-11
  7. Ko JH,Yang SH,Park AH,Lerouxel O,Han KH
    ANAC012, a member of the plant-specific NAC transcription factor family, negatively regulates xylary fiber development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2007. 50(6): p. 1035-48
  8. Zhong R,Richardson EA,Ye ZH
    The MYB46 transcription factor is a direct target of SND1 and regulates secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(9): p. 2776-92
  9. Mitsuda N,Ohme-Takagi M
    NAC transcription factors NST1 and NST3 regulate pod shattering in a partially redundant manner by promoting secondary wall formation after the establishment of tissue identity.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(5): p. 768-78
  10. Zhong R,Lee C,Zhou J,McCarthy RL,Ye ZH
    A battery of transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(10): p. 2763-82
  11. Zhou J,Lee C,Zhong R,Ye ZH
    MYB58 and MYB63 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(1): p. 248-66
  12. Iwase A,Hideno A,Watanabe K,Mitsuda N,Ohme-Takagi M
    A chimeric NST repressor has the potential to improve glucose productivity from plant cell walls.
    J. Biotechnol., 2009. 142(3-4): p. 279-84
  13. Koizumi K,Yokoyama R,Nishitani K
    Mechanical load induces upregulation of transcripts for a set of genes implicated in secondary wall formation in the supporting tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Plant Res., 2009. 122(6): p. 651-9
  14. McCarthy RL,Zhong R,Ye ZH
    MYB83 is a direct target of SND1 and acts redundantly with MYB46 in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2009. 50(11): p. 1950-64
  15. Zhao Q, et al.
    Syringyl lignin biosynthesis is directly regulated by a secondary cell wall master switch.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010. 107(32): p. 14496-501
  16. Zhong R,Lee C,Ye ZH
    Global analysis of direct targets of secondary wall NAC master switches in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2010. 3(6): p. 1087-103
  17. Ohashi-Ito K,Oda Y,Fukuda H
    Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN6 directly regulates the genes that govern programmed cell death and secondary wall formation during xylem differentiation.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(10): p. 3461-73
  18. Oikawa A, et al.
    An integrative approach to the identification of Arabidopsis and rice genes involved in xylan and secondary wall development.
    PLoS ONE, 2010. 5(11): p. e15481
  19. Yamaguchi M, et al.
    VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 directly regulates the expression of a broad range of genes for xylem vessel formation.
    Plant J., 2011. 66(4): p. 579-90
  20. Lee C,Teng Q,Zhong R,Ye ZH
    The four Arabidopsis reduced wall acetylation genes are expressed in secondary wall-containing cells and required for the acetylation of xylan.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2011. 52(8): p. 1289-301
  21. McCarthy RL,Zhong R,Ye ZH
    Secondary wall NAC binding element (SNBE), a key cis-acting element required for target gene activation by secondary wall NAC master switches.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2011. 6(9): p. 1282-5
  22. Wang H,Zhao Q,Chen F,Wang M,Dixon RA
    NAC domain function and transcriptional control of a secondary cell wall master switch.
    Plant J., 2011. 68(6): p. 1104-14
  23. Zhong R, et al.
    Transcriptional activation of secondary wall biosynthesis by rice and maize NAC and MYB transcription factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2011. 52(10): p. 1856-71
  24. Hussey SG, et al.
    SND2, a NAC transcription factor gene, regulates genes involved in secondary cell wall development in Arabidopsis fibres and increases fibre cell area in Eucalyptus.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2011. 11: p. 173
  25. Li Q, et al.
    Splice variant of the SND1 transcription factor is a dominant negative of SND1 members and their regulation in Populus trichocarpa.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2012. 109(36): p. 14699-704

  26. MYB103 is required for FERULATE-5-HYDROXYLASE expression and syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis stems.
    Plant J., 2013. 73(1): p. 63-76
  27. Lee C, et al.
    Three Arabidopsis DUF579 domain-containing GXM proteins are methyltransferases catalyzing 4-o-methylation of glucuronic acid on xylan.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2012. 53(11): p. 1934-49
  28. Matschi S, et al.
    Function of calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 of Arabidopsis thaliana in plant stem elongation and vascular development.
    Plant J., 2013. 73(6): p. 883-96
  29. Yuan Y,Teng Q,Zhong R,Ye ZH
    The Arabidopsis DUF231 domain-containing protein ESK1 mediates 2-O- and 3-O-acetylation of xylosyl residues in xylan.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(7): p. 1186-99
  30. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  31. Zhong R,Ye ZH
    The Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NST2 functions together with SND1 and NST1 to regulate secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers of inflorescence stems.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(2): p. e989746